April 2013 - Volume 7 Number 2 - Pages 1-178
International Journal of Language Studies, 7(2), 1-30.
Clinical linguistics is an important and growing area of language study. Yet, this linguistic discipline has been relatively overlooked in comparison with mainstream branches of linguistics such as syntax and semantics. This paper argues for a greater integration of clinical linguistics within linguistics in general. This integration is warranted, it is argued, on account of the knowledge and methods that clinical linguists share with academics in other areas of linguistics. The paper sets out by discussing a narrow and a broad definition of clinical linguistics before examining key stages in the human communication cycle. This cycle represents the cognitive and linguistic processes involved in the expression and interpretation of utterances. Language and communication disorders are characterized in terms of specific points of breakdown in this cycle. The contribution of each branch of linguistic study – phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics and discourse – to an analysis of language disorders is considered. Data from a range of clinical subjects, both children and adults, is used to illustrate the linguistic features of these disorders. The paper concludes with a summary of the main points of the discussion and a preview of a companion article to be published in the International Journal of Language Studies.
Keywords: Aphasia; Apraxia of Speech; Autism Spectrum Disorders; Cleft Palate; Clinical Linguistics; Dementia; Developmental Phonological Disorder; Dysarthria; Intellectual Disability; Language Disorder; Right-Hemisphere Damage; Schizophrenia; Specific Language Impairment; Speech and Language Therapy; Traumatic Brain Injury
Linda R. WAUGH, Linda R. WAUGH, University of Arizona, USA
International Journal of Language Studies, 7(2), 31-60.
Much recent work on metonymy has concentrated on its definition, properties and functions (Benczes, Barcelona & Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez, 2011) but few studies have examined the combination of verbal and visual metonymy or the benefits of multimodal metonymical analysis in issues of social justice. In this paper eleven news articles regarding issues in financial discourse such as the financial crisis, fiscal cliff, underwater homeowners and entitlements are examined visually and verbally from a variety of online newspaper sources. Results reveal intricate visual and verbal metonymies such as EFFECT FOR CAUSE, RESULT FOR ACTION, INSTITUTION FOR PERSON, DEFINING PROPERTY FOR CATEGORY and BODY PART FOR ACTION that aid in hiding or highlighting events and act as ideology carriers that are difficult to detect. The unique contribution of this article lies not only in the exposure of linguistic/non-linguistic strategies used to mitigate the role of those responsible for the financial crisis, or to shape public opinion on a particular policy or issue, but also in the attention it gives to metonymy’s role (in text and image) in the positive representation of corporate America which, we will argue, has resulted in few repercussions for the financial sector.
Keywords: Financial Crisis; Fiscal Cliff; Metaphor; Underwater Homeowners; Entitlements; Metonymy; Multimodal Analysis; Financial Discourse
Zhi LI, Iowa State University, USA
International Journal of Language Studies, 7(2), 61-82.
The advancement in technology has paved the way for the inclusion of videos in L2 listening comprehension tests. It is true that video listening test format is becoming more popular in various contexts. But, as existing research shows, there are still some on-going debates over the practice of video-based listening tests. Taking an argument-based approach (Chapelle, Enright, & Jamieson, 2008), this paper focuses on the issues of construct definition and test authenticity in video-based listening tests. The inferences of Domain definition and Explanation were introduced to help contextualize the issues. Empirical studies suggest that the controversial role of visual-related skills in the construct of video-based listening tests is not well recognized both in theory and in practice. The commonly held assumption that the introduction of videos into listening tests boosts authenticity is questionable with a closer look at the two aspects of authenticity, namely situational and interactional authenticity. Therefore, more empirical research and theoretical thinking are needed to warrant the use of videos in listening tests. Some suggestions concerning video-based listening test development and validation studies are made at the end of this paper.
Keywords: Video-Based Listening Comprehension Tests; Argument-Based Validity; Construct Definition; Authenticity
Wen Hsien YANG, National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism, Taiwan
International Journal of Language Studies, 7(2), 83-108.
Much research on analyzing generic structure and linguistic features in academic settings mainly focuses on a single genre, but the structures of inter-related genres have been relatively less systematically studied. ‘Call for papers’ (CFP), as one of the ignitions in a genre chain of academic texts, could play a rather crucial role in affecting prospective contributors’ attention and also determining the quality of submissions. However, compared to the studies on research papers, studying textures of CFP has received relatively little attention from analysts. Thus, in this study 120 CFP were collected from various academic conferences in six disciplines on the Internet, and were compared to examine whether any disciplinary variations existed in terms of the unique schematic structure and lexical features of this genre employed by writers in both the hard and soft sciences. A manual multi-level move analysis and computerized analysis of textual elements were used. Subtle variations in CFP were identified between the two major science areas.
Keywords: Genre Analysis; Call for Papers (CFP); Generic Structure; Rhetoric Choices; Academic Conferences; Discipline Variations
D. Catalina MÉNDEZ VALLEJO, The College of William & Mary, USA
International Journal of Language Studies, 7(2), 109-142.
This study analyzes the manifestations of autonomy and affiliation (cf. Bravo 2004) in the performance of requests among young Colombian women in comparable situations, presented in a symmetrical system (-Power), and with various degrees of social distance (+/-Distance). The data were examined quantitatively and qualitatively, and the role of linguistic and non-linguistic (i.e. prosodic) devices of mitigation was closely examined in relation to politeness and face. The results show that, in terms of frequency, Conventionally Indirect requests constitute the most common strategy in this variety, followed by Direct requests, and Non-conventionally indirect requests. Internal and external modification in requests is also found to be significant in all conversations (downgraders, expressions of solidarity, intensifiers). Also, specific prosodic patterns are found in certain types of segments within the interactions, which suggest a direct relation between prosody and politeness in the realization of requests. The results of the study indicate that young Bucaramanga female speakers tend to manifest cooperation and camaraderie when involved in –Distance situations, and respect and deference when involved in + Distance situations. In this sense, some components of face seem to reflect the socio-cultural background of this community in Bucaramanga, Colombia.
Keywords: Politeness; Face; Prosody; Requests; Colombian Spanish
International Journal of Language Studies, 7(2), 143-164.
This study aimed at investigating the preferred refusal strategies in Persian. 3047 refusals collected by 108 field workers as well as 376 refusals collected through face to face interviews were analyzed and classified according to the descriptions proposed by Liao (1994) and Liao and Bresnahan (1996). The frequencies of the resulting direct and indirect refusal strategies were then used as the data for the current study. Politeness systems as suggested by the model proposed by Scollon and Scollon (2001) as well as refusers’ demographic characteristics (i.e., their age, sex, and education level) were used as the independent variables of the study. Kruskal-Wallis H Test and Mann-Whitney U Test results indicated that teen-agers and low-education Persian speakers prefer non-performative refusal strategies. Power relations can also determine whether non-performative strategies are preferred to performative refusals. The results supported the claim that politeness is a dynamic concept that changes through time and with human generations.
Keywords: Refusal Strategies; Refusals; Politeness Systems; Intercultural Communication; Speech Acts; Face; Politeness; Face-Threatening Acts
Nafiseh MORADI, Independent Researcher, Iran
International Journal of Language Studies, 7(2), 165-175.
The link between Persian and Arabic Languages has been investigated by researchers since a long time ago. After the Arab invasion of Iran, at that special period of time, Arabic language was a lot more important than Persian language; it was the language of courts of Iran for a while, and Iranian writers had more tendency to write in Arabic rather than Persian. That is why; some researchers believe that the Persian language has been influenced by the Arabic language. However, in pre-Islamic Iran, during Parthian and Sassanid kingdoms, there was a wide association between Iranians and Arabs. According to many Arabic and Persian references, Persian, in Sassanid era, was spoken from Hira (located in today’s Iraq) to Yemen. From 399 till 430 AC (224 till 193 BH), Persian had been prevalent among inhabitants of Hira who could speak in this language. By investigating Arabic poems in pre-Islamic Arab tribes, we can figure out that the Persian language and the Sassanid civilization have influenced Arabic culture and language. In these poems, there are many Persian entries (words from Pahlavi or Middle Persian language which have changed according to Arabic dialects). In this research, by referring to historical and literary Arabic and Persian documents, we have investigated how the Persian language and the Iranian civilization have influenced the Arabic language and literature in the pre-Islamic period, and we will also illustrate some Persian words which were been used in pre-Islamic Arabic poems.
Keywords: Arabic Poetry; Persian Language; Arabic Language; Borrowing; Lexical Transfer; Cognates; Word Formation
Sakire ERBAY, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey
International Journal of Language Studies, 7(2), 176-178.